Author Archives: KarenO

Fruit and Veggies

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FRUITS AND THEIR CONTENTS

APPLES: These are the most widely fed fruits and most popular. The nutritional value is not great as the skin is usually discarded and most of the value is in the skin or just beneath it; water content can be as high as 80%. They contain pectin, a natural germicide (in humans) against gastrointestinal diseases.

APRICOTS: They retain their high Vitamin A content even when cooked, dried, or canned, their carotene content is also very high.

BANANAS: They digest slowly, they have a high carbohydrate content and release energy over a long period.

FIGS: A natural food for many species, served fresh or dried, soaked in water overnight or the dried ones have high levels of minerals including calcium, potassium, and magnesium and their fiber content is high.

GRAPES: Nutritional value is not high but they are relished by the birds.

KIWIFRUIT: An excellent fruit the contents of potassium, calcium and magnesium is quite high.

MANGOS: They contain large amounts carotene, also minerals including potassium.

NECTARINES: A fine source of carotene and potassium.

PAPAYAS: Unripe they contain the protein-splitting enzyme papin which is highly efficient in aiding in digestion. Ripe it contains only a small amount of papin. Carotene is high, it also contains potassium, calcium and magnesium.

PEACHES: It is easily digested, contains vitamins and minerals, is rich in carotene.

PLUMS: The contain carotene calcium, and potassium.

RASPBERRIES: This fruit is excellent nutritionally, potassium content is high, there are smaller amounts of calcium, magnesium, carotene and vitamins of the B complex and iron.

(reprinted from: Texas Canary Club)

YOU HAD BETTER GET FRESH VEGGIES!

Follow these guidelines when picking out your veggies.

CORN: Look for bright green husks that, when pulled back slightly, reveal even rows of kernels.

CAULIFLOWER: Pick solid, heavy heads with a creamy white color and bright green leaves.

GREEN BEANS: Long straight pods that snap crisply when bent.

CARROTS: Should be firm, medium sizes, bright orange, free from shriveled tips and blemishes.

BROCCOLI: Buds should be rich green, firm and packed closely together. Leaves attached to the stems should be bright and not wilted.

ASPARAGUS: Should be firm, straight stalks with dosed tips.

(reprinted from.~ Bayou Bird Gazette)

Published in Bird Feed

Disinfectants

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The following table covers a few of the factors needed to make an educated decision on the proper disinfectant/cleansing agent for your aviary:

CHLORHEXIDINE (Nolvasan/Chlorhexiderm)

Advantages:

  • Minimal toxicity of diluted mixture
  • Kills some Gram Negative Bacteria

Disadvantages:

  • Does not kiil Chlamydia, some strains of Pseudomonas or Polyoma
  • Diluted mixture good for only 24 hours
  • Costly - $0.42/day
  • Does not penetrate organic material

GLUTARALDEHYDE (Cidex/Wavicide) Advantages:

  • Kills majority of viruses, bacteria and fungal organisms
  • Moderate cost - $0.29/day
  • Can penetrate organic debris

Disadvantages:

  • Toxic to birds, humans and environment *Not biodegradable
  • Corrosive to feeding utensils
  • Chemically related to formaldehyde

SODIUM HYDPCHLORITE (Bleach/Chloros/Purex)

Advantages:

  • Kills most viruses, bacteria and fungal organisms even when diluted 1:10
  • Inexpensive - $0.10/day

Disadvantages:

  • Stable for 6 hours when diluted
  • Not biodegradable
  • Caustic to avian and human tissue
  • Corrosive to some metals and plastics
  • Does not penetrate organic debris very well

CHLORINE DIOXIDE (Oxyfresh Dentagene/Oxyfresh Cleansing Gel).

Advantages:

  • Kills Polyoma Virus, NewCastle Virus, all types of bacteria and fungal organisms
  • Penetrates organic material
  • Stable for 7 days
  • Moderate cost - $0.39/day
  • Manufacturer supports Avian Research by donating a percentage of sales
Published in Bird Dangers

Dangers to Birds

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There are many dangers for birds in your house. Make’ sure your house is ‘bird safe’. If It is safe for a baby, it will be safe for a pet bird.

  1. Close the toilet seat cover on all toilets (the bird can drown in the water).
  2. Store or dispose of all chemicals, plants, hot grease, soapy water (they love water) to where your bird can’t get to them.
  3. Do not put the cage near or against curtains (they will chew on them and get their legs caught) or any other household items the bird can chew on.
  4. Wood burning stoves, fireplaces, Teflon cookware and Teflon coated items give off fumes that can kill your bird.
  5. Keep plants away from the bird so they cannot chew (almost all plant leaves and stems are poisonous to birds).
  6. Put all electrical cords in PVC pipe or other protective piping, if possible (the birds will chew the cords and electrocute themselves).
  7. Hot light bulbs can burn your bird.
  8. Before you take your bird out of the cage, be sure all ceiling fans are turned off and have stopped rotating. Spinning ceiling fan blades can kill or maim your bird.
  9. When your bird is out of the cage, insure someone in the family is attending to it to keep it company and to protect it from its own curiosity and chewing habits.

Have a happy time with your pet bird. Give it plenty of love and attention and you will have a wonderful companion for many years to come.

Published in Bird Care

Types of Feeds

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Extruded

Various ingredients are ground and mixed together in a meal or ground slightly and then forced under steam and pressure through a “cooking tube’. The cooked ingredients expand and are then forced through specially shaped dies. The resultant product is then cooled. Because the products produced under extrusion are dry and somewhat expanded, oils, fats and other sprays can be easily added. Many whole grains, such as soybeans, can be extruded under pressure and friction without steam. When products are extruded, they are cooked and thus become very palatable. However, this process crates heat which destroys natural enzymes and also produces a kibble which contains larger amounts of air meaning, fat consumption will increase. Where high fat, high protein and palatability are important, extrusion is a preferred method of manufacturing. Added fat, vitamins and natural enzymes are then sprayed on the finished product when it is still hot and the product “soaks up” those add ons during the drying/cooling process.

Pellets

Cooking at temperatures over 120 degrees Fahrenheit usually destroys natural enzymes.

Bacteria

Various ingredients are finely ground and then forced through a pellet machine and die so that the end result is a compacted food. Because this is a simple compaction and pressure process, no real cooking occurs. There are two types of pelleting processes:

  1. Regular: Steam is injected in order to help lubricate the pellet, allowing the mix to be pelleted faster. In this process, high levels of heat occur.
  2. Cold Pressed: In this process, the mix is forced through the die using very little steam and heat thus helping to preserve naturally occurring enzymes.

In a “regular” pelleting process because of steam and heat, a more compact, harder pellet can be produced having fewer fines (less waste), but this process tends to destroy most natural enzymes and deteriorates vitamins sensitive to heat and moisture. The cold pressed’ process produces a coarser, less compacted pellet. Often there are more fines, but the process has less damaging effects on vitamins and enzymes.

Seed Mixes

These mixes are combinations of various seeds, fruits and other ingredients which are combined in a mixer and then packaged. Heat and moisture are not introduced, thus maintaining natural nutrient content. Because of varying size and weight of each ingredient, there is often “separation’ during shipping and handling. Therefore, it is always recommended that those types of mixes be stirred thoroughly prior to use.

Published in Bird Feed

Cooking for Pets

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Cooked and Raw Ingredients

When cooking for your pets, its is important to remember that care should be taken in several areas:

Cooking Utensils

Non-stick surfaces can produce toxic elements. Aluminum products give off aluminum salt which may be toxic. Use glass, ceramic or stainless steel.

Temperature

Cooking at temperatures over 120 degrees Fahrenheit usually destroys natural enzymes.

Bacteria

Cooked food which is left out for more than an hour or so can develop bacteria and molds which may be harmful. Remove uneaten cooked foods within an hour if they contain meat sources or raw fruits. Pasta products should not be left out for more than 4 hours. Cooking may or may not remove bacteria and salmonella.

Raw Vegetables & Fruits

Once cut up and exposed to air, bacteria and molds can start to grow. It is best to use low-moisture, naturally dried fruits which have not been treated with chemical preservatives or mold inhibitors. Wash fresh fruit thoroughly.

Fresh Nuts

Make sure fresh nuts are unprocessed and do not have salt added.

Carbohydrates

Read the label. Refined carbohydrates (sugar, dextrose, etc.) put extra stress on the pancreatic gland and may cause a problem with sugar metabolism. Dried fruits are the best source rather than added sugar or dextrose.

Adding Vitamins & Minerals

A Liquid vitamins deteriorate rapidly. In most cases, vitamin potency is lost after a few hours. Liquid vitamins should be replaced after 24 hours.

B Dry vitamins mixed with foods are more stable

C It is better to put vitamins into mixtures after cooking.

D Adding “mega-doses” of vitamins and minerals can lead to nutrient imbalances which create vitamin/mineral deficiencies. Always follow label directions.

Medications

Before using medications or antibiotics, please consult your veterinarian. Antibiotics can destroy certain beneficial bacteria in the system which can lead to nutritional problems. Prolonged use of certain antibiotics can cause certain disease carrying bacteria to become antibiotic resistant.

Published in Avian Nutrition